PLURALITY OF DEBTORS AND CREDITORS
Section 290. If several persons owe a divisible performance, or if a divisible performance is owed to several persons, each debtor is, in case of doubt liable only for an equal share, and each creditor is entitled to an equal share.
Section 291. If several persons owe an act of performance in such manner that each is bound to effect the whole performance, though the creditor is entitled to obtain the whole performance only once (i.e. joint debtors), the creditor may demand the performance at his option from any one of the debtors, in the whole or in part. Untill the whole performance has been effected all of the debtors remain bound.
Section 292. Performance of the obligation by one joint debtors operates in favour of the other debtors. The same rule applies to any act in lieu of performance, to the deposit of lieu of performance and to set off.
A claim belonging to one of the joint debtors may not be set off by the other debtors.
Section 293. A release of the obligation granted to one of the joint debtors avails for the benefit of the other debtors only in respect of the share of the debtor who has been released unless otherwise agreed.
Section 294. The default of the creditor towards one joint debtor avails also in favour of the other debtors.
Section 295. Facts other than those specified in Sections 292 to 294 avail, unless the contrary appears from the nature of the obligation, in favour of and as against only the joint debtor to whom they particularly refer.
This applies, in particular, to the giving of notice, default, imputability of fault, impossibility of performance on the part of one joint debtor, prescription or its interruption, and merger of the claim in debt.
Section 296. As between themselves joint debtors are liable in equal shares, unless it is otherwise provided. If from one of the joint debtors the contribution due from him cannot be obtained, the deficiency shall be borne by the other debtors who are bound to make contribution; provided that one of the joint debtors has been released from joint obligation, the creditor takes upon himself that share which the debtor released by him ought to have born.
Section 297. If in a contract several persons bind themselves in common to effect a performance, they are liable, in case of doubt, as joint debtors even in the case of a divisible performance.
Section 298. If several persons are entitled to demand an act of performance in such manner that each can demand the whole performance, though the debtor is bound to effect the whole performance only once (i.e. joint creditors), the debtor may at his option perform in favour of any one of the creditors. This applies even if one of the creditors has already brought an action for the performance.
Section 299. Default on the part of one joint creditor avails also against the other creditors.
If a claim and a debt become merged in one joint creditor, the rights of the other creditors against the debtor are extinguished.
For the rest the provisions of Sections 292, 293 and 295 apply mutatis mutandis. In particular, if one joint creditor transfers his claim to another person, the rights of the other creditors remain unaffected.
Section 300. Joint creditors are, as between themselves, entitled to equal shares, unless it is otherwise provided.
Section 301. If several person owe an indivisible performance, they are liable as joint debtors.
Section 302. If an indivisible performance is owed to several persons, and if they are not joint creditors, the debtor may only perform in favour of all in common, and each creditor may only demand the performance in favour of all. Each creditor may demand that the debtor deposits the thing owed for the benefit of all the creditors, or if the thing is not suitable to be deposited, that it be consigned to a custodian appointed by the Court.
For the rest a fact which refers only to one creditor does not avail in favour of nor as against the other creditors.
TRANSFER OF CLAIMS
The provisions of the foregoing paragraph do not apply, if the parties have declared a contrary intention. Such declaration of intention, however, cannot be set up against a third person acting in good faith.
Section 304. A claim is not transferable if it is not subject to judicial attachment.
Section 305. With the transferred claim the rights of mortgage or pledge existing on its account and the rights, arising from a suretyship established for it, pass to the transferee.
The transferee may also enforce any preferential right connected with the claim in case of compulsory execution or bankruptcy.
Section 306. The transfer of an obligation performable to a specific creditor is not valid unless it is made in writing. It can be set up against the debtor or third person only if a notice thereof has been given to the debtor, or if the debtor has consented to the transfer. Such notice or consent be in writing.
The debtor is discharged if he satisfies the transferor by way of payment or otherwise before he has received notice of, or has agreed to, the transfer.
Section 307. If a right is claimed under different transfers, the first transfer notified, or agreed to, shall be preferred.
Section 308. If a debtor has given the consent mentioned in Section 306 without reservation, he cannot set up against the transferee a defense which he might have made against the transferor. If, however, in order to extinguish the obligation, the debtor has made any payment to the transferor, he may recover it, or if for such purpose he has assumed an obligation to the transferor, he may treat it as if it did not exist.
If the debtor has only received a notice of the transfer, he may set up against the transferee any defense which he had against the transferor before he recieved such notice. If the debtor had against the transferor a claim not yet due at the time of the notice, he can set off such claim provided that the same would become due not later than the claim transferred.
Section 309. The transfer of an obligation performable to order can be set up against the debtor or other third person only if the transfer is indorsed on the instrument, and the instrument itself is delivered to the transferee.
Section 310. The debtor of an obligation performable to order has the right, but is not bound, to verify the identity of the holder of the instrument or the genuineness of his signature or seal; but if the debtor acts in bad faith or with gross negligence, his performance is invalid.
Section 311. The provisions of the foregoing section apply correspondingly, if a creditor is designated in the instrument, but it is added that performance shall e made to the holder of such instrument.
Section 312. The debtor of an obligation performable to order cannot set up against any transferee in good faith defences which he might have set up against the original creditor, except such as appear on the face of the instrument or result naturally from its character.