FORMATION OF CONTRACT
Section 354. An offer to make a contract in which a period for acceptance is specified cannot be withdrawn within such period.
Section 355. A person who, without specifying a period for acceptance, makes an offer to another at a distance cannot withdraw his offer within a time which notice of acceptance might reasonably be expected.
Section 356. An offer made to a person who is present without specifying a period for acceptance may be accepted only there and then. This applies also to an offer made by one person to another on the telephone.
Section 357. An offer ceases to be binding if it is refused to the offeror, or if it is not accepted in due time according to the three foregoing sections.
Section 358. If the notice of acceptance arrives out of time, but it is apparent that it was sent in such manner that in the ordinary course of things it ought to have arrived in due time, the offeror, unless he has already done so, must without delay give notice to the other party of the delayed arrival.
If the offeror fails to give notice mentioned in the foregoing paragraph, the notice of the acceptance is deemed not to have been out of time.
Section 359. If the acceptance of an offer arrives out of time, it is deemed to be a new offer.
An acceptance with additions, restrictions or other modifications is deemed to be a refusal coupled with a new offer.
Section 360. The provisions of Section 169 paragraph 2 do not apply, if the offeror has declared a contrary intention, or if before accepting the other party had notice of the fact of his death or loss of capacity.
Section 361. A contract between persons at a distance comes into existence at the time when the notice of acceptance reaches the offeror.
In accordance to the declared intention of the offeror or to ordinary usage no notice of acceptance is necessary, the contract comes into existence at the time of the occurrence of fact which is considered as a declaration to accept.
Section 362. A person who by advertisement promises that he will give a reward to whoever shall de a certain act is bound to give such reward to any person who does the act, even if such person did not act with a view to the reward.
Section 363. In the case of the foregoing section the promisor may so long as there is no person who has completed the specific act, withdraw his promise by the same means which used for advertising, unless he declared in the advertisement that he would not withdraw it.
If a promise cannot be withdrawn by the means of the aforesaid, withdraw may be made by other means, but in such case it is valid only against those persons who know of it.
If the promisor has fixed a period within which the specified act must be done, he is presumed to have renounced his right of withdrawal.
Section 364. If there are several persons who have done the act specified in the advertisement, only that one who does it first has a right to receive an equal share of the reward.
If several persons do such act at the same time, each one has a right to receive an equal share of the reward. But if the reward is in its nature indivisible, or if by the terms of the promise only one person is to receive the reward, it is decided by lot.
The provisions of the foregoing two paragraphs do not apply, if in the advertisement a different intention is declared.
Section 365. A promise of reward which has a prize competition is valid only if a period of time is fixed in the advertisement.
The decision whether any competitor fulfils the conditions of the promise within the period, or which one among several competitors deserves the preference, shall be made by the umpire named in the advertisement, or in the absence of any such, by the promisor of the reward. The decision is binding upon the parties concerned.
In case of equality of merit the provisions of Section 364 paragraph 3 apply correspondingly.
The transfer of ownership of the thing produced may be demanded by the promisor only of he has specified in the advertisement that such transfer shall be made.
Section 366. So long as the parties have not agreed upon all points of a contract upon which, according to the declaration of even one party, agreement is essential, the contract is, in case of doubt, not concluded. An understanding concerning particular points is not binding, even if they have been noted down.
If it is agreed that the contemplated contract shall be put into writing, in case of doubt, the contract is not concluded until it is put in writing.
Section 367. If the parties to a contract, which they regarded as concluded, have in fact not agreed as to one point upon which an agreement was to be settled, those parts which were agreed upon are valid in so far as it may be inferred that the contract would have been concluded even without a settlement of this point.
EFFECT OF CONTRACT
Section 369. A party to a reciprocal contract may refuse to perform his obligation until the other party performs or tenders performance of his obligation. But this does not apply, if the other party’s obligation is not yet due.
Section 370. If the object of a reciprocal contract is the creation or transfer of a real right in a specific thing, and such thing is lost or damaged by a cause which is not attributable to the debtor, the loss or damage fails upon the creditor.
To a non-specific thing the provisions of the foregoing paragraph apply from the time when the thing has become specific in accordance with the provisions of Section 195 paragraph 2.
Section 371. The provision of the foregoing section do not apply, if the thing which forms the subject of a reciprocal contra depending upon a condition precedent is lost or destroyed while the condition is pending.
If the thing is damaged by a cause not attributable to the creditor, the latter, when the condition is fulfilled, may at his option either demand performance with reduction of his counter performance or rescind the contract, provided that in the case where the cause of the damage is attributable to the debtor, the creditor’s right to compensate is not affected thereby.
Section 372. Except in the cases mentioned in the two foregoing sections, if an obligation becomes impossible of performance by a cause not attributable to either party, the debtor has no right to receive the counter performance.
If performance becomes impossible by a cause attributable to the creditor, the debtor does not lose his right to the counter performance. He must however, deduct what he saves in consequence of release from the performance, or what he acquires or maliciously omits to acquire by a different application of his faculties. The same rule applies in the performance due from one party becomes impossible, in consequence of a circumstance for which he is not responsible, at the time when the other party is in default to acceptance.
Section 374. If a party by a contract agrees to make a performance to a third person, the latter has a right to claim such performance directly from the debtor.
In the case of the foregoing paragraph the right of the third person comes into existence at the time when he declares to the debtor his intention to take the benefit of the contract.
Section 375. After the right of the third person has come into existence in accordance with the provisions of the foregoing section, it cannot be charged or extinguished by the parties to the contract.
EARNEST AND STIPULATED PENALTY
Section 377. If, on entering into a contract, something is given as earnest, this is deemed to be proof of the conclusion of the contract. I also serves as a security that the contract shall be performed.
Section 378. In the absence of agreement to the contrary, earnest is:
|To be returned or treated as part-payment upon performance
|To be forfeited, if the party giving it fails to perform, or if the performance becomes impossible in consequence of the circumstance for which he is responsible or if the rescission of the contract is due to his fault.
|To be returned, if the party receiving it fails to perform, or, if the performance becomes impossible in consequence of a circumstance for which he is responsible.
Section 379. If the debtor promises the creditor the payment of a sum of money as penalty in case he does not perform it in the proper manner, the penalty is forfeited if he is in default. If the performance due consist in a forbearance, the penalty is forfeited as soon as any act in contravention of the obligation is committed.
Section 380. If the debtor has promised the penalty for the case of his not performing his obligation, his creditor may demand the forfeited penalty in lieu of performance. If the creditor declares to the debtor that he demands the penalty, the claim for performance is barred.
If the creditor has a claim for compensation for non-performance, he may demand the forfeited penalty as the minimum amount of the damage. Proof of further damage is admissible.
Section 381. If the debtor has promised the penalty for the case of his not performing the obligation in the proper manner, such as, not at the fixed time, the creditor may demand the forfeited penalty in addition to the performance.
If the creditor has a claim for compensation on account of improper performance, the Section 380 paragraph 2 apply.
If the creditor accepts the performance he may demand the penalty only if on acceptance he reserves the right to do so.
Section 382. If another performance than the payment of a sum of money is promised as penalty, the provisions of Sections 379 to 381 apply; the claim for compensation is barred if the creditor demands the penalty.
Section 383. If a forfeited penalty is disproportionately high, it may be reduced to a reasonable amount by the Court. In determination of reasonableness every legitimate interest of the creditor, not merely his property interest, shall be taken into consideration. After payment of the penalty the claim for reduction is barred.
The same rule applies also, apart from the cases provided for by Sections 379 and 382, if a person promises a penalty for the case of his doing or forbearing to do some act.
Section 384. If the promises performance is invalid, an agreement made for a penalty for non-performance of the promise is also invalid, even if the parties knew of the invalidity of the promise.
Section 385. If the debtor contests the forfeiture of the penalty on the ground of having performed his obligation, he must prove the performance, unless the performance due from him consisted in a forbearance.
RESCISSION OF CONTRACT
Section 386. If by contract or by the provisions of law one party has the right of rescission, such rescission is made by a declaration of intention to the other party.
The declaration of intention in the foregoing paragraph cannot be revoked.
Section 387. If one part does not perform the obligation, the other party may fix a reasonable period and notify him to perform within that period. If he does not perform within that period, the other party may rescind the contract.
Section 388. If the object of a contract according to its nature or to an intention declared by the parties can be accomplished only by performance at a fixed time or within a fixed period, and such time or period has passed without one of the parties having performed, the other party may rescind the contract without the notification mentioned in the foregoing section.
Section 389. If performance becomes wholly or party impossible by a cause attributable to the debtor, the creditor may rescind the contract.
Section 390. If in a contract there are several persons on the one or the other side, the right of rescission may be exercised only by all and against all. If the right of rescission is extinguished in respect of one of those persons entitled, also in respect of the others.
Section 391. If one party has exercised his right of rescission, each party is bound to restore the other to his former condition; but the rights of third persons cannot be impaired.
To money which is to be repaid in the case of the foregoing paragraph interest is to be paid from the time when it was received.
For services rendered and for allowing the use of a thing the restitution shall be made by paying the value, or, if in the contract a counter-payment in money is stipulated for, this shall be paid.
The exercise of the right of rescission does not affect a claim for damages.
Section 392. The obligations of the parties resulting from rescission shall be performed according to the provisions of Section 369.
Section 393. If no period is fixed for the exercise of the right of rescission, the other party may fix a reasonable period and notify the party having a right of rescission to declare within such period whether he will rescind or not. If notice of rescission is not received within such period, the right of rescission is extinguished.
Section 394. The right of rescission is extinguished when the person entitled has, by his own act or fault, essentially damaged the thing which is the subject of a contract or has rendered the restitution thereof impossible or has charged into a thing of a different kind by working it up or remodeling it.
If without the act or fault of the person who has the right of rescission the thing which is the subject of the contract of the contract has been lost or damaged, the right of rescission is not extinguished.